Exceptional properties of sapphire
One of the best homes of sapphire is its excessive mechanical strength. It is one of the toughest minerals, 2d best to diamond, and could be very durable. It additionally has a low coefficient of friction. This method while it makes touch with every other item, each the sapphire and the item can slide without problems with out getting scratched or damaged.
Sapphire is likewise very transparent. It has excessive optical transparency, now no longer simply withinside the seen mild spectrum however additionally withinside the UV and IR mild ranges (from 2 hundred nm to 4000 nm).
With a melting point of 2040 deg C, sapphire is also very heat resistant. It is stable and can safely be used in high temperature processes up to 1800 deg C. Its thermal conductivity is also 40 times greater than that of glass. Its ability to dissipate heat is similar to that of stainless steel.
Sapphire is also very chemically stable. It is very corrosion resistant and is not damaged by most bases or acids such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, or nitric acid. It is also able to withstand long exposures to plasmas and excimer lamps. Electrically, it is a very strong insulator. Its dielectric constant is stable, with an extremely low dielectric loss.